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Samtse Dzongkhag is bordered by Chukha dzongkhag in the east, Haa dzongkhag in the north and the Indian state of west Bengal and Sikkim in the south and west respectively. It is located at an altitude ranging from 180 to 4,200m above sea-level and lies in the sub-tropical monsoon climate zone. The monthly temperature ranges between 15 degree Celsius in winter to 30 degree Celsius in the summer and receives an annual rainfall between 1500-4000 m. The summer is hot and humid and winter is dry and moderate cool.

Until 2005, samtse Dzongkhag had an area of approximately 1,301.79 square kilometer and has Dungkhags (Doro kha and Sipsu) and 16 gewogs. However in 2006 an area of 194.8 square kilometers (35.91sq.km.From Lahereni gewog, and 102 sq.km from May on a gewog.) Was handed over to Haa Dzongkhag.The remaining 42.15 sq.km.Of Mayona was merged with Dungtoe gewog. About 64% of the total area is under forest cover. In the foothill of Yoesetse, Ugentse, Chenmari, Samtse, Sipsu and Tendu gewogs, Wetland cultivation is an important activity and rice is the staple diet along with mustard. In the northern gewogs such as Denchukha, Dungtoe and Dorokha, apart from paddy cultivation. The main cash crops of dzongkhag are areca nut, ginger, orange and cardamom.Apart from this people also earn by selling dairy and poultry products.

Lhotshampas, Adibashi and Drukpas are the three main distinct ethnic groups in Samtse.Administratively,the dzongkhag has two Dungkhags;Dorokha and Sipsu,and 15 gewogs.The 2012 projected population of the Dzongkhags is 67,525.